HHRA: Phase 1 Problem Formulation (1997)

A report on the first step in detailed Human Health Risk Assessment for smelter-related metals, other than lead. This series of assessments involved estimating people’s exposures to metals based on concentrations in Trail air, soil, dust, produce, sediment and water. Lead was not included in this assessment because exposures and risks to the most susceptible population group (pre-school aged children) were being measured directly through blood lead testing. This first phase, technically referred to as a “Problem Formulation”, identified which metals should be considered in the subsequent, more detailed phases, based on any evidence of contamination above screening levels in soils – namely, antimony, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, selenium, thallium, tin and zinc.

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